Tuesday, June 14, 2005

What is Project Cycle Management?

1. The Project Cycle Management

Project Cycle Management (PCM)
is a term used to describe the management activities and decision-making procedures used during the life-cycle of a project (including key tasks, roles and responsibilities, key documents and decision options).

PCM helps to ensure that:

  • Projects are supportive of overarching policy objectives of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and of development partners;

  • projects are relevant to an agreed strategy and to the real problems of target groups/beneficiaries;

  • projects are feasible, meaning that objectives can be realistically achieved within the constraints of the operating environment and capabilities of the implementing agencies; and

  • benefits generated by projects are likely to be sustainable.

A typical Project Cycle in development project has 6 main phases, as shown in the Figure below.

For the successful implementation and operation of JICA projects, the cycle highlights three common principles:

  1. Decision making criteria and procedures are defined at each phase (including key information requirements and quality assessment criteria);
  2. The phases in the cycle are progressive - each phase should be completed for the next to be tackled with success; and
  3. New programming and project identification draws on the results of monitoring and evaluation as part of a structured process of feedback and institutional learning.

2. Logical Framework Approach

The Logical Framework Approach (LFA) is an analytical and management tool which is now used (in one form or another) by most multi-lateral and bi-lateral aid agencies, international NGOs and by many partner governments. It is a core tool used within Project Cycle Management.

The LFA should be thought of as an 'aid to thinking' which allows information to be analysed and organized in a structured way.

The Logical Framework Matrix (the Logframe) consists of a matrix with four columns and four (or more) rows, which summarise the key elements of a project plan, namely:

  • The project's hierarchy of objectives (Project Description)

  • The key external factors critical to the project's success (Assumptions); and

  • How the project's achievements will be monitored and evaluated (Indicators and Sources of Verification)

The general structure of the Logframe matrix and a brief description of the type of information it should contain is shown in the Figure below.

Friday, June 03, 2005

Background of the Project

(1) Socioeconomy of Papua New Guinea

The economy of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is characterized by its dual structure. The modern or market economy sector is supported by mineral products and other export goods such as coffee, cocoa and copra. Reliance on these primary products makes the PNG economy vulnerable to changes in their international prices. The traditional or subsistence economy sector has supported the accelerating population growth since the independence in 1975 but not generated any major product. In order for Papua New Guinea to realize self-reliant economic development under the globalization, such industries or products that have comparative advantage need to be brought up. To realize this, the functions of major urban centers as points of contact between the global and the regional economies need to be strengthened along with improved infrastructure and administrative services.
The society of Papua New Guinea is still largely rural with some 85% of the people relying on agriculture for their employment and livelihood. While the urbanization has started to proceed rapidly in recent years, the urbanization ratio increased from 16.2% in 1995 to 17.9% in 2002. The National Capital District (NCD) of Port Moresby is the largest urban center with slightly over 300,000 people. The primary products that support the PNG economy are derived from agriculture and rural areas.

(2) Development policy and urbanization

The present administration, started in August 2002, has established the medium term development strategy (2003-07) to reconstruct the socioeconomy of Papua New Guinea suffering from the decline since the mid-1990s. The three components of the strategy are (1) good governance, (2) export-oriented economic growth, and (3) rural development with poverty alleviation and human resources development. The first component aims at strengthening political stability through the public sector reform and the enforcement of official discipline in government agencies. The second and the third components aim at the development of export industries and products through rural development focusing on agriculture and fishery with their linkages to mining and services as well as improved social services.
In addition to the rural and agricultural development policy, the importance of the urbanization policy has been recognized, and the policy paper on the urbanization is in preparation. The Government of Papua New Guinea considers the urbanization inevitable and desirable for the development of the Country and intends to realize sound urban growth in relation to rural hinterlands, controlling the rapid urbanization as observed in the NCD.

(3) Development administration and the NCD Council

Papua New Guinea has been pursuing the localization of development administration since 1977 when the Organic Law on Provincial Governments was enacted. The Central Government has devolved to the provincial governments seven functions related to planning and management of public works and related provincial affairs, health, primary industry, education, commerce, information, and budgetary management. The new Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local-Level Governments was enacted in 1995 as part of the administrative reform under the initiative of IMF/World Bank structural adjustment program. This has dissolved the dual structure of the provincial government and the provincial administration of the Central Government to effect further local autonomy. Still the financial base of the provincial governments is very weak, heavily relying on the transfer in various forms from the Central Government.
In addition to 19 provinces, the National Capital District Commission (NCDC) was established in 1990 with the equivalent administrative functions to the provincial government. NCDC is managed by a committee consisting of members of the national assembly elected in the Port Moresby constituency and other local representatives.
Naturally, the leadership of the assemblymen/women as well as the mayor affects the activities of NCDC.

(4) Project justification

The development of the NCD of Port Moresby is critically important for Papua New Guinea to pursue the export-oriented economic development as mentioned above. The population of the NCD has increased rapidly since the independence, when its administrative center was transferred to the Waigani Valley. The average annual population growth was 6.4% during 1975-90. After 1990, the population increase in the NCD has occurred mainly in “settlements” on the outskirts of the urbanized area.
The settlements in the NCD have developed both by voluntary settlements of aborigines from rural areas and by resettlement projects planned by the Government. Voluntary settlements have developed along the kinships of various tribes sharing the same languages, social customs and culture and constituting so-called “wantok.” Consequently, the settlements serve as buffer areas for immigrants to the NCD, providing a sort of social safety net. Also settlers maintain strong ties with their original villages, and the “circular migration” between the urban and the rural areas is a dominant phenomenon among the settlement residents.
A settlement in the NCD represents a base of the wantok network and has important political roles as well. Politicians play the roles of traditional leaders just as village leaders and tribal chiefs. Elections are based on the wantok network. Therefore, the development of settlements also has important political implications.
The settlements hold a key position for the development of the NCD as indicated above. A major challenge for the NCD urban development is how to enhance the overall quality of urban environment while utilizing the functions of the settlements providing the social safety net. A technical cooperation project is proposed to enhance the capacity of the local residents and administration for the community development in the settlements to contribute to improved urban environment in the NCD of Port Moresby.

Project Objectives

The objectives of the technical cooperation project are as follows:

(1) To derive and compile lessons and recommendations related to community development in the settlements through the project implementation;

(2) To enhance the capacity of DfCD and NCDC officials for community development in the settlements through the on-the-job and other training and workshops in association with the project implementation; and

(3) To promote the cooperation between the local NGOs/consultants and the local administration involved in the project implementation.

Project Area and Organizations

The technical cooperation project will be undertaken in selected settlements of the NCD. Through earlier works, 12 settlements have been selected as candidates for the pilot project implementation. The existing conditions in these settlements will be studied with the participation of the local residents, and the areas and the scope of the pilot projects determined.
The technical cooperation will be undertaken for officials of two counterpart agencies: the Department for Community Development (DfCD) and NCDC. Also the Department of National Planning and Rural Development (DNPRD) will be directly involved with the project.
Two organizations are established for the implementation of the project. The Joint Implementation Committee (JIC) consists of officials of DfCD and NCDC, local NGOs/consultants, representatives of settlement residents, and the JICA consultant. JIC will be the joint implementing agency for the project. The Joint Coordination Committee (JCC) comprises the DfCD secretary and the NCDC city manager, the DNPRD representatives, and representatives of the related Japanese organizations including JICA itself. JCC will supervise and coordinate the operation of the project works.

Thursday, June 02, 2005

Team visited settlements in the capital area.

Originally uploaded by NCDC-PNG.
The project team made initial settlement visits in May 12 to announce the kick off of the urban resettlement project in the capital area of Port Moresby, PNG.

Blog is here

Urban resettlement project in Port Moresby, PNG is a technical cooperation project implemented by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Blog for the projct started to provide some information and news regarding the project.